Adderall is a prescription medication used to treat people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, (ADHD) and narcolepsy. When used correctly and as prescribed, Adderall can significantly improve the 540920389.jpgquality of life of people who suffer with these conditions. Unfortunately, the substance is often the subject of abuse, especially among teens and young adults as an academic performance enhancer.
Since Adderall is made up of a combination of stimulant amphetamines, it works by altering the brain’s chemical responses – specifically the ones responsible for focus and impulse control. The central nervous system begins increasing levels of dopamine, epinephrine and other neurotransmitters, allowing a student to eliminate distractions and work more efficiently when the course workload becomes heavy.
Benzedrine is the trade name of the racemic mixture of amphetamine (dl-amphetamine). The drug was often referred to as "bennies" by users and in literature. It was marketed under this brand name in the USA by Smith, Kline & French in the form of inhalers, starting in 1933. Benzedrine was used medically to enlarge nasal and bronchial passages until it was discontinued and replaced with compounds with weaker psychoactive properties (e.g., ephedrine, levomethamphetamine, and propylhexedrine).
Dextroamphetamine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and amphetamine stereoisomer prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Dextroamphetamine is also widely used by military air forces as a 'go-pill' during fatigue-inducing mission profiles such as night-time bombing missions. Preparations containing dextroamphetamine were also used in World War II as a treatment against fatigue.
The amphetamine molecule has two stereoisomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Dextroamphetamine is the more active dextrorotatory, or "right-handed", enantiomer of the amphetamine molecule. Dextroamphetamine is available as a generic drug or under several brand names, including Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and Zenzedi. Dextroamphetamine is also available as the active metabolite of the prodrug lisdexamfetamine.
Dextroamphetamine, like other amphetamines, elicits its stimulating effects via two distinct actions: first, it inhibits or reverses the transporter proteins for the monoamine neurotransmitters (namely the serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporters) via trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1); and second, it releases these neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles via vesicular monoamine transporter 2. It also shares many chemical and pharmacological properties with the human trace amine neurotransmiters, especially phenethylamine and N-methylphenethylamine, the latter being an isomer of amphetamine that is produced within the human body.