Drug Images - Opiates Pictures

Opiates and Tranquilizers "Everywhere Psychology"

Follow this dangerous drug as it begins in a remote Afghan heroin lab, and witness a police raid on a heroin distribution network.

Drugs, Inc. - Heroin

Follow this dangerous drug as it begins in a remote Afghan heroin lab, and witness a police raid on a heroin distribution network.

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Heroin

a.k.a.: Heroin, Smack, Tar, Horse, Chiva, Junk, Skag, H, China White, and Black.

Heroin (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate, also known as diamorphine and commonly known by its street names of H, smack, boy, horse, brown, black, tar, and others is an opioid analgesic originally synthesized by C.R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, which is found naturally in the opium poppy. It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine. Administered intravenously by injection, heroin is two to four times more potent than morphine and is faster in its onset of action.

Illicit heroin is sometimes available in freebase form, dulling the sheen and consistency to a matte-white powder. Because of its lower boiling point, the freebase form of heroin is also smokable. It is prevalent in heroin coming from Afghanistan, which in 2004 produced roughly 87% of the world supply in illicit raw opium. However, the production rate in Mexico has risen sixfold from 2007 to 2011, changing that percentage and placing Mexico as the second largest opium producer in the world.

As with other opioids, diacetylmorphine is used as both a legal, medically prescribed drug (e.g., as an analgesic, cough suppressant and as an anti-diarrhea drug) and a recreational drug, in which case the user is seeking euphoria. Frequent and regular administration is associated with tolerance and physical dependence. Internationally, diacetylmorphine is controlled under Schedules I and IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. It is illegal to manufacture, possess, or sell diacetylmorphine without a license.

It is also available for prescription to long-term users as a form of opioid replacement therapy in the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, and Denmark, alongside psycho-social care—in the same manner that methadone or buprenorphine are used in the United States and Canada—and a similar programme is being campaigned for by liberal political parties in Norway.

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Morphine

Morphine (INN)/ˈmɔrfiːn/), sold under many trade names, is a pain medication of the opiate type. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain. It can be used for both acute pain and chronic pain. Morphine is also frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction and during labour. It can be given by mouth, into a muscle, under the skin, intravenously, into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally. Maximum effect is around 20 min when given intravenously and 60 min when given by mouth while duration of effect is between three and seven hours.[2][3] Long acting formulations also exist.

Potentially serious side effects include a decreased respiratory effort and low blood pressure. Morphine has a high potential for addiction and abuse. If the dose is reduced after long term use withdrawal may occur. Common side effects include drowsiness, vomiting, and constipation. Caution is advised when used during pregnancy or breast feeding as morphine will affect the infant.

Morphine was first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by Friedrich Sertürner. This is generally believed to be the first isolation of a active ingredient from a plant. Merck began marketing it commercially in 1827. Morphine was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853–1855. Sertürner originally named the substance morphium after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus, for its tendency to cause sleep.

The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy straw of the opium poppy. In 2013 an estimated 523,000 kilograms of morphine were produced. About 45,000 kilograms were used directly for pain, an increase over the last twenty years of four times. Most use for this purpose was in the developed world. About 70% of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxycodone, heroin, and methadone. It is a Schedule II drug in the United States, Class A in the United Kingdom, and Schedule I in Canada. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

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Codeine and Morphine

Morphine, sold under many trade names, is a pain medication of the opiate type. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain. It can be used for both acute pain and chronic pain. Morphine is also frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction and during labour. It can be given by mouth, into a muscle, under the skin, intravenously, into the space around the spinal cord, or rectally. Maximum effect is around 20 min when given intravenously and 60 min when given by mouth while duration of effect is between three and seven hours. Long acting formulations also exist.

Potentially serious side effects include a decreased respiratory effort and low blood pressure. Morphine has a high potential for addiction and abuse. If the dose is reduced after long term use withdrawal may occur. Common side effects include drowsiness, vomiting, and constipation. Caution is advised when used during pregnancy or breast feeding as morphine will affect the infant..

Morphine was first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by Friedrich Sertürner. This is generally believed to be the first isolation of a active ingredient from a plant. Merck began marketing it commercially in 1827. Morphine was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853–1855. Sertürner originally named the substance morphium after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus, for its tendency to cause sleep.

The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy straw of the opium poppy. In 2013 an estimated 523,000 kilograms of morphine were produced. About 45,000 kilograms were used directly for pain, an increase over the last twenty years of four times. Most use for this purpose was in the developed world. About 70% of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxycodone, heroin, and methadone. It is a Schedule II drug in the United States, Class A in the United Kingdom, and Schedule I in Canada. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.

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Codeine sulfate 30 MG Oral Tablet

Codeine or 3-methylmorphine (a naturally occurring methylated morphine) is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is often sold as a salt in the form of either codeine sulfate or codeine phosphate in the United States and Australia; codeine hydrochloride is more common worldwide and the citrate, hydroiodide, hydrobromide, tartrate, and other salts are also seen.

Codeine is the second-most predominant alkaloid in opium, at up to three percent. Although codeine can be extracted from natural sources, a semi-synthetic process is the primary source of codeine for pharmaceutical use. It is considered the prototype of the weak to midrange opioids (tramadol, dextropropoxyphene, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone).

In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. It is the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.

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Oxycodone

Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid synthesized from thebaine, an opioid alkaloid found in the Persian poppy and one of the many opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy. It is an analgesic generally indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain. It was developed in 1917 in Germany as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids.

Oxycodone is available as single-ingredient medication in immediate release and controlled release. Parenteral formulations of 10 mg/mL and 50mg/mL are available in the U.K. for IV/IM administration.[6] Combination products formulated with non-narcotic ingredients such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) are also available as immediate release formulations; a combination with naloxone is available in managed-release tablets, the naloxone precipitates opioid withdrawal symptoms & blocks the faster onset were the tablet to be crushed and filtered for injection or otherwise tampered with in a manner not indicated.