Phencyclidine (a complex clip of the chemical name 1-(1-phenyl cyclohexyl)piperidine), commonly initialized as PCP and known colloquially as Angel Dust, pharmaceutically as Sernyl, and by many other names, is a dissociative drug. PCP was brought to market in the 1950s as an anesthetic pharmaceutical drug but was taken off the market in 1965 due to the high prevalence of dissociative hallucinogenic side effects. Likewise ketamine was discovered by Parke-Davis researchers as a better-tolerated derivative for use as an anesthetic pharmaceutical drug. Since this time a number of synthetic derivatives of PCP have been sold as dissociative drugs for recreational and non-medical use.
In chemical structure, PCP is a member of the arylcyclohexylamine class, and, in pharmacology, it is a member of the family of dissociative anesthetics. PCP works primarily as an NMDA receptor antagonist, where it blocks the activity of the NMDA receptor. Like most hallucinogenic drugs, there is risk of abuse with PCP.
As a recreational drug, PCP may be ingested orally, smoked, insufflated or injected.
Drugs, Inc. is an American documentary television series on the National Geographic Channel that explores global narcotics production.
a.k.a.: Angel Dust, Magic Dust.
"Wet," a street name for liquid PCP, can be applied to a marijuana cigarette and then smoked.
A Camden, N.J., man accused of murdering a 6-year-old boy and critically wounding his 12-year-old sister was high on a combination of PCP and marijuana, a drug sometimes called "wet," at the time of the crime, according to local authorities.
Camden investigators have connected PCP use with a number of murders in the city over the past few years, but scientists have yet to directly link the drug with violent behavior.
Police say Osvaldo Rivera, 31, slit the throat of Dominick Andujar as he slept in his bedroom early Sunday (Sept. 2) morning. Rivera also reportedly stabbed Andujar's 12-year-old sister, who is now in critical condition at a hospital.
PCP is well known for its primary action on ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor in rats and in rat brain homogenate. As such, PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist. The role of NMDAR antagonism in the effect of PCP, ketamine and related dissociative agents was first published by the early 1980s by David Lodge and colleagues. Other NMDA receptor antagonists include ketamine, tiletamine, dextromethorphan, nitrous oxide, MK-801, and dexoxadrol.
NMDA receptors are excitatory ionotropic receptors, however, studies have shown that PCP unexpectedly produces substantial cortical activation in humans and rodents. Research also indicates that PCP inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors among other mechanisms. Analogues of PCP exhibit varying potency at nACh receptors and NMDA receptors. Findings demonstrate that presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) and NMDA receptor interactions influence postsynaptic maturation of glutamatergic synapses and consequently impact synaptic development and plasticity in the brain. These effects can lead to inhibition of excitatory glutamate activity in certain brain regions such as the hippocampus and cerebellum thus potentially leading to memory loss as one of the effects of prolonged use. Acute effects on the cerebellum manifest as changes in blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate, and loss of muscular coordination during intoxication.
PCP, like ketamine, also acts as a D2 receptor partial agonist in rat brain homogenate and has affinity for human cloned D2 receptors. This activity may be associated with some of the other more psychotic features of PCP intoxication, which is evidenced by the successful use of D2 receptor antagonists (such as haloperidol) in the treatment of PCP psychosis.
In addition to its well explored interactions with NMDA receptors, PCP has also been to shown to associate with certain dopamine reuptake carrier proteins, and thereby lead to increased levels of available dopamine.
Additionally, studies on rats indicate that PCP indirectly interacts with endorphin and enkephalin receptors to produce analgesia.